Irradiation is a complete no heat and ionic process that is widely used as a functional and reservation modification agent in polymer research and application. Irradiation treatment is considered as one of the fast convenient as well as extensive treatment methods because in this process ionizing energy easily penetrates the polysaccharide granules in a fast manner.
Gamma irradiation makes use of different materials such as concrete steel or leads to stop its passing process. However, its motion is usually associated with radiation and it completely differs from both alpha and beta irradiation. Gamma irradiation is widely used in solving numerous agricultural issues.
The effect of Gamma-irradiation application in food polymers
Gamma irradiation has the capacity of changing the functional properties of legumes, emulsion, water, form, as well as oil absorption capacities. However, this has been seen in peanut flour and red kidney beans. And in some cases irradiation was also applied to the isolated proteins. The final effects of irradiation on the proteins in different food systems such as cowpea flours and seeds have proved to be less dangerous. In this case, large molecules such as starch may offer some protection against the radiation effects on small molecules. Additionally, some more studies showed particular changes in protein-related properties.
Gamma irradiation in food preservation
Here we will consider the case of cowpea seeds. Gamma irradiation between 2.5 kg y and 10 kg y successfully reduces the cooking time required for soybeans. Additionally, scientists also observed a drastic decrease in the cooking time and simultaneously greater retention in vitamin b in 10kg y was irradiated.
The physicochemical properties of legumes were also expected to alter their cooking durations. When we talk about the work on Gamma irradiation of cowpea seeds then a significant reduction in the total cooking time of cowpea seeds could be observed. This could be done because of the radiation-induced structural alterations which include starch degradation along with the presence of pectic substances that results in increased heat as well as mass transfer through the seed cotyledon as well as the cell wall.
Whenever we use a dose of 50 kg y Gamma radiation we also observe that the cooking time required for cowpea seeds is comparatively elongated. This happens due to the complex structure as well as chemical transformations inside the cowpea seed. These chemical changes include the extensive starch presence of pectic substances as well as protein crosslinking structuring at a high dose. On the other hand, you can also observe a particular nutrient leaching process from the cooked seeds into the cooked water due to the gamma radiation process where dose matters a lot.
Whenever we cook cowpea seeds at high doses then we can observe a huge reduction in the splitting of cowpea seeds. But we cannot observe the same when we irradiate the cowpea seeds at low or medium doses.
It has been observed that comprehensive studies made on different cases have shown different results by Gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties. However, in the case of rice, corn, and potato, starch gelatinization enthalpy could be found to decrease due to the Gamma irradiation.